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B1 Lesson 10 Medicines B1 Lesson 12 Nervous System
Year 9

Learning outcomes and Specification referenceEdit

B1.1.2 How our bodies defend themselves against infectious diseasesEdit

B1 Lesson 11 Antibiotic Resistance
h Use of antibiotics – how they work and problems of overuse. Explain how the treatment of disease has changed due to understanding the action of antibiotics and immunity.
I Antibiotic resistance, eg MRSA.
j Mutations lead to resistant strains of pathogens which can spread rapidly. Evaluate the consequences of mutations of bacteria and viruses in relation to epidemics and pandemics.
k Development of new antibiotics to combat resistant bacteria. Explain the difficulty in developing drugs that kill viruses without damaging body tissues.
HT only Explain what we should do to slow down the rate of development of resistant strains of bacteria.

Full Specification TextEdit

h) Antibiotics, including penicillin, are medicines that help to cure bacterial disease by killing infectious bacteria inside the body. Antibiotics cannot be used to kill viral pathogens, which live and reproduce inside cells. It is important that specific bacteria should be treated by specific antibiotics. The use of antibiotics has greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases. Overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotics has increased
the rate of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria.
i) Many strains of bacteria, including MRSA, have developed resistance to antibiotics as a result of
natural selection. To prevent further resistance arising it is important to avoid overuse of antibiotics.
j) Mutations of pathogens produce new strains. Antibiotics and vaccinations may no longer be effective against a new resistant strain of the pathogen. The new strain will then spread rapidly because people are not immune to it and there is no effective treatment.

Higher Tier candidates should understand that:
■ antibiotics kill individual pathogens of the non-resistant strain
■ individual resistant pathogens survive and reproduce, so the population of the resistant strain increases
■ now, antibiotics are no longer used to treat non-serious infections, such as mild throat infections, so that the rate of development of resistant strains is slowed down.
k) The development of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria necessitates the development of new antibiotics.

Starter ActivitiesEdit

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Activities to introduce new ideasEdit

Activities to practice applying new knowledgeEdit

Practical activitiesEdit


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Class practicalsEdit

  • Survival Rivals - X bacteria. Kits were supplied to many secondary schools free of charge. Aimed at 16-19 age group but there are lots of animations, videos and resources to support a higher ability or triple science set.


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References to lessons and resources in commercial schemesEdit

Nelson ThornesEdit


Harper CollinsEdit